View table definitions

In the directory orcas\examples\orderentry\db\tabellen you can find the previous table definitions in “Orcas syntax”. To find out how something has to be described in ORCAS, you can either read the table syntax, or see things you seek via reverse engineering from an existing database actually.

Here as an example the definition of the table items

create table items
  item_id         number(15)                    not null,
  version         number(15)      default "0"   not null,
  ctgr_id         number(15)                    not null,
  name            varchar2(30)                  not null,
  description     varchar2(1000)                not null,
  image_location  varchar2(255),
  price           number(8,2)                   not null,

  constraint item_pk primary key (item_id),
  constraint item_uc unique (name),
  constraint item_ctgr_fk foreign key (ctgr_id) references categories (ctgr_id),

  comment on column version is 'default ist null';
  comment on table is 'items tabelle';  

Add a column

We want to add only one column currency, but we are expanding the table definition simply to the appropriate line:

  currency     varchar2(3)           not null,

In order to synchronize the schema again and to see the new column in the database, you have to connect you back to the Vagrant VM

vagrant ssh

There switch to the directory /orcas/orcas/examples/orderenty/db, where the build.xml is and run again


Now you should see in the table *items the new column.

Remove a column (no data)

Also you can remove the column

  currency     varchar2(3)           not null,

again from the definition. After another run of ant the column is gone.

Remove a column (with data)

Now let the example rerun slightly modified, so initially the column is added again:

  currency     varchar2(3)           not null,

Now we want to add the table with one record. There’s a foreign key for categories, we must first enter a record here.

The insertion of data is done manually by corresponding insert statements or database tool.

Next, use the column again from the definition and rerun ant .

Now the following message appears on the console:

[echo] ERROR at line 1:
[echo] ORA-20000: drop mode ist nicht aktiv, daher kann folgendes statement nicht
[echo] ausgefuehrt werden: alter table ITEMS drop column CURRENCY
[echo] ORA-06512: at line 9

As soon a the data get lost through a drop, this is not performed. It is determined by the build.xml:

<target name="build_tables" depends="show_location,orcas_initialize">
  <orcas_execute_statics scriptfolder="tabellen" scriptfolderrecursive="true" spoolfolder="${binrundir}/log" logname="tables" dropmode="false"/>

In the target build_tables is the dropmode=false, we set it to true, save and run again ant. This time the build is successful again:


and the column is no longer available. As a precaution, we put the parameters in build.xml now back again ;). The topic ant tasks follows in more detail in part 2 of the training.

Add new table

Exercise: A business partner can have several addresses

Now add a new table ADDRESSES that accepts the address line of BUSINESS_PARTNERS and is referenced by a foreign key from BUSINESS_PARTNERS.

More exercises

For the exercises respectively the generated SQL is to be observed, especially if “drop and create” or “alter” is used.

  1. Expansion of item_uc the column ctgr_id.
  2. Set item_ctgr_fk to “on delete cascade”.
  3. Set the data type from description to varchar2(500)
    • no data
    • with data that fit (not longer than 500)
    • with data that does not fit (longer than 500)
  4. Set the data type from description to varchar2(2000)
  5. You want to create an index on the column price and version
  6. An index on upper(name) should be created.